My research is supported as a part of my work as a scholar at my home institution, Western Michigan University. The research reported in these articles received no grants or other monetary support from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

The following is a list of peer reviewed publications that I have authored or co-authored. Depending on the copyright agreements with the publishers, free access to the article or the original manuscript may be available.


Religion, Nonreligion, and Deviance: Comparing Faith's and Family's Relative Strength in Promoting Social Conformity
Journal of Religion and Health


Victim-Offender Trajectories: Explaining Propensity Differences from Childhood to Adulthood through Risk and Protective Factors
British Journal of Criminology


The Impact of Degree of Exposure to Violent Video Games, Family Background, and Other Factors on Youth Violence
Journal of Youth and Adolescence

"Sports will Keep 'em out of Trouble": A Comparative Analysis of Substance Use among Adolescents and Young Adults
Journal of Sport and Health Research

Who Plays Violent Video Games? An Exploratory Analysis of Predictors of Playing Violent Games
Personality and Individual Differences


From Playing to Programming: The Effect of Video Game Play on Confidence with Computers and an Interest in Computer Science
Sociological Research Online

“Money Will Solve the Problem”: Testing the Effectiveness of Conditional Incentives for Online Surveys
Survey Practice

Motivation is Key: The Differing Predictors of Adolescents’ Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs
Childhoods Today

Self-Injury, Suicide Ideation, and Sexual Orientation: Differences in Causes and Correlates among High School Students
Journal of Injury and Violence Research


Bad Reputation: Stigma as an Inhibitor of Risk Behaviors
Journal of Risk Research

Developmental Victimology: Estimating Group Victimization Trajectories in the Age-Victimization Curve
International Review of Victimology

From Bullied to Deviant: The Victim-Offender Overlap among Bullying Victims
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice

Impersonal Agencies of Communication: Comparing the Effects of Video Games and Other Risk Factors on Violence
Psychology of Popular Media Culture

Why So Many Questions? Measurement Issues and the Attitudinal Self-Control Scale
Deviant Behavior


Explaining Prescription Opioid Misuse Among Veterans: A Theory-Based Analysis Using Structural Equation Modeling
Military Behavioral Health

Therapeutic Engagement and Post-Treatment Substance Use in Adolescent TC Clients: Direct and Indirect Effects
Journal of Drug Issues

Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent TC Treatment
Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse

Spirituality and Desistance from Substance Use among Reentering Offenders
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology


Fatherhood, Community Reintegration, and Successful Outcomes
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

Gender Differences in Victimization Risk: Exploring the Role of Deviant Lifestyles
Violence and Victims

Health Behaviors and Standardized Test Scores: The Impact of School Health Climate on Performance
International Journal of School & Educational Psychology

Self-Treatment vs.Recreational Motives: Differentiating Nonmedical use of Prescription Drugs among Youth
International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies


Causal or Spurious:Using Propensity Score Matching to Detangle the Relationship between Violent Video Games and Violent Behavior
Computers in Human Behavior

Debating Empirical Questions on the Internet: Rival Claims about Crowd Sizes of the Glenn Beck/Stewart-Colbert Rallies
Sociological Research Online

Desisting from Prescription Drug Abuse: An Application of Growth Models to Rx Opioid Users
Journal of Drug Issues

The Many Measurements of Self-Control: How Reoperationalized Self-Control Compares
European Journal of Criminology

Self-Cutting and Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents: Gender Differences in the Causes and Correlates of Self-Injury
Deviant Behavior

Youth Victimization: School Climate or Deviant Lifestyles?
Journal of Interpersonal Violence


Predicting Feelings of School Safety for Lower, Middle, and Upper School Students: A Gender Specific Analysis
Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice


Pirating Youth: Examining the Correlates of Digital Music Piracy among Adolescents
International Journal of Cyber Criminology

Transitioning to Middle School in the Sixth Grade: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) Analysis of Substance Use, Violence, and Suicidal Thoughts
Journal of Early Adolescence


Internet Scallywags: A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Forms and Measurements of Digital Piracy
Western Criminology Review


Piracy on the High Speeds: A Test of Social Learning Theory on Digital Piracy among College Students
International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences